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Table 1 Background characteristics of U.S. adults with substance use disorders with and without histories of incarceration

From: Utilization of addiction treatment among U.S. adults with history of incarceration and substance use disorders

  Substance use disorder with no history of incarceration (N = 8183) Substance use disorder with history of incarceration (N = 2670) Test of difference
Mean/raw n (sd/weighted %) Mean/raw n (sd/weighted %) Cohen’s d/odds ratio (95% CI)
Background characteristics
 Age 41.29 (.24) 42.64 (.31) .07
 Sex-male 4096 (54.31) 1925 (75.64) 2.61 (2.37, 2.88)
Race
 White 5170 (74.96) 1475 (68.78) .74 (.66, .83)
 Black 1316 (8.29) 639 (13.83)
Sexual orientation
 Heterosexual 7648 (95.32) 2495 (94.46) .84 (.66, 1.07)
 Gay/bisexual 455 (4.68) 152 (5.54)
Years of education 10.33 (.05) 9.19 (.04) − 0.28
Marital status
 Married/Live-in partner 3692 (55.86) 960 (46.57) .69 (.54, .88)
 Divorced/Separated 1522 (14.00) 753 (23.96)
 Widowed 250 (2.25) 73 (1.97)
Never married 2719 (27.89) 884 (27.50)
Age first married 24.32 (.10) 24.38 (.19) .01
# of children 1.59 (.03) 2.11 (.08) .17
Birthplace
 Foreign-born 7453 (92.47) 2522 (94.67) .69 (.54, .88)
 Native-born 729 (7.53) 146 (5.33)
Years living in the United States 20.49 (.59) 29.14 (1.10) .16
Urbanicity
 Urban 6869 (79.67) 2201 (77.19) .86 (.72, 1.04)
 Rural 1314 (20.33) 469 (22.81)
Region
 Northeast 1270 (20.10) 259 (11.78) .53 (.42, .67)
 Midwest 1978 (24.52) 629 (23.88)
 South 2689 (30.56) 1043 (38.64)
 West 2246 (24.82) 739 (25.70)
Employed full/part-time 5244 (65.05) 1266 (44.37) .67 (.60, .76)
Ever served in the U.S. military 816 (10.67) 409 (15.84) 1.58 (1.35, 1.84)
Annual personal income
 $0 298 (4.07) 57 (2.05) 2.17 (1.59, 2.98)
 $1–$9999 1409 (16.64) 662 (24.25)
 $10,000–29,999 2960 (32.96) 1122 (39.52)
 $30,000–49,999 1700 (21.04) 483 (18.13)
 $50,000–79,999 1101 (14.29) 246 (10.70)
 $80,000–99,999 297 (4.01) 39 (2.00)
 $100,000 or more 418 (6.98) 61 (3.34)
Health coverage
 Medicare 1077 (12.94) 454 (16.24) 1.30 (1.11, 1.54)
 Medicaid 1002 (9.40) 561 (17.85) 2.09 (1.79, 2.45)
 VA/TRICARE/CHAMPUS 433 (4.90) 159 (5.96) 1.23 (.98, 1.55)
 Private insurance 4860 (65.18) 989 (40.24) .36 (.32, .41)
 Government/state insurance 184 (2.31) 91 (3.08) 1.34 (.92, 1.97)
Any health insurance 6507 (81.86) 1823 (69.02) .49 (.43, .57)
Social support score 2.56 (.003) 2.58 (.007) .07
Any lifetime homelessness 501 (5.40) 607 (22.47) 5.08 (4.34, 5.95)
  1. Reference groups are female, non-white, gay/bisexual, rural, income ≥ 100,000 participants with no history of incarceration
  2. Italic values indicate d > .3 or OR < .5 or OR > 1.5
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