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Table 2 Bivariable and multivariable GEE analysis of factors associated with HAT eligibility among people who live with HIV

From: Eligibility for heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) among people who inject opioids and are living with HIV in a Canadian setting

Characteristic Bivariable Multivariable
Odds ratio (95% CI) p value Odds ratio (95% CI) p value
Age     
 (Per 10 years older) 0.97 (0.94–1.01) 0.101   
Gender     
 (Male vs. female/non-male) 0.49 (0.31–0.80) 0.004 0.50 (0.31–0.82) 0.006
Ethnicity     
 (Caucasian vs. other) 1.39 (0.84–2.28) 0.198   
Homelessnessa     
 (Yes vs. no) 1.61 (1.21–2.16) 0.001 1.47 (1.07–2.01) 0.016
Relationship statusa     
 (Legally married/common law/regular partner vs. other) 0.82 (0.60–1.12) 0.213   
Highest level of education completed     
 (≥ high school diploma vs. < high school diploma) 1.01 (0.62–1.65) 0.957   
Employmenta     
 (Yes vs. no) 0.73 (0.56–0.95) 0.018   
Money spent on drugs p/day     
 (= $50 per day vs. < $50 per day) 1.53 (1.15–2.02) 0.003   
Drug dealinga     
 (Yes vs. no) 1.93 (1.50–2.49) < 0.001 1.76 (1.33–2.31) < 0.001
Years of using injection heroin at baseline     
 (Per year increase) 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.781   
Daily non-injection cocaine usea     
 (Yes vs. no) 1.76 (0.54–5.68) 0.347   
Daily non-injection heroin usea     
 (Yes vs. no) 7.45 (1.50–37.05) 0.014 8.18 (1.25–53.56) 0.028
Daily crack usea     
 (Yes vs. no) 1.56 (1.17–2.09) 0.003 1.35 (1.01–1.82) 0.045
Daily meth usea     
 (Yes vs. no) 1.79 (0.97–3.30) 0.061   
Overdosea     
 (Yes vs. no) 1.29 (0.77–2.15) 0.328   
Lent syringea     
 (Yes vs. no) 0.93 (0.24–3.59) 0.915   
Recent incarcerationa     
 (Yes vs. no) 1.34 (0.83–2.18) 0.233   
Engaged in any form of unprotected sexa     
 (Yes vs. no) 1.07 (0.64–1.81) 0.787   
Exchanged sex for gifts, food, shelter, clothes, etc.a     
 (Yes vs. no) 1.30 (0.73–2.32) 0.378   
Attacked, assaulted, or suffered violencea     
 (Yes vs. no) 1.10 (0.76–1.58) 0.613   
HCVa     
 (Yes vs. no) 1.05 (0.53–2.05) 0.898   
Plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load > 50 c/mLa     
 (Yes vs. no) 0.98 (0.76–1.25) 0.853   
On ART (≥ 1 day)a     
 (Yes vs. no) 0.79 (0.56–1.10) 0.162   
CD4+ cell counta     
 (Per 100 cells/mL increase) 1.07 (0.99–1.15) 0.096 1.08 (1.00–1.17) 0.042
  1. aAll behavioural variables refer to the 6 months prior to the follow-up questionnaire