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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants who inject opioids and live with HIV in Vancouver, BC, stratified by the baseline HAT eligibility status

From: Eligibility for heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) among people who inject opioids and are living with HIV in a Canadian setting

Characteristic Total (%) (n = 478) HAT eligibility p value
Yes (%)
45 (9.4)
No (%)
433 (90.6)
Age (median, inter-quartile range-IQR)b 43.1 (36.7–47.9) 36.7 (34.2–43.7) 43.5 (37.9–48.1) < 0.001
Gender     
 Male 321 (67.2) 23 (51.1) 298 (68.8) 0.016
 Non-male 157 (32.8) 22 (48.9) 135 (31.2)  
Ethnicity     
 Caucasian 273 (57.1) 29 (64.4) 244 (56.4) 0.296
 Non-Caucasian 205 (42.9) 16 (35.6) 189 (43.6)  
Homelessnessa     
 Yes 169 (35.4) 22 (48.9) 147 (33.9) 0.026
 No 305 (63.8) 21 (46.7) 284 (65.6)  
Relationship statusa     
 Legally married/common law/regular partner 126 (26.4) 15 (33.3) 111 (25.6) 0.228
 Other 339 (70.9) 28 (62.2) 311 (71.8)  
Highest level of education completed     
 ≥ high school diploma 229 (47.9) 23 (51.1) 206 (47.6) 0.512
 < high school diploma 241 (50.4) 20 (44.4) 221 (51.0)  
Employmenta,c     
 Yes 101 (21.1) 4 (8.9) 97 (22.4) 0.035
 No 377 (78.9) 41 (91.1) 336 (77.6)  
Money spent on drugs p/dayc     
 ≥ $50 p/day 315 (65.9) 39 (86.7) 276 (63.7) < 0.001
 < $50 p/day 158 (33.1) 5 (11.1) 153 (35.3)  
Drug dealinga     
 Yes 148 (31.0) 25 (55.6) 123 (28.4) < 0.001
 No 330 (69.0) 20 (44.4) 310 (71.6)  
Years of using heroin injection heroin at baseline (median, IQR)b     
 Number of years 14.8 (7.3–22.6) 15.7 (8.7–20.4) 14.4 (7.3–22.7) 0.640
Daily non-injection cocaine usea,c     
 Yes 2 (0.4) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.5) 1.000
 No 476 (99.6) 45 (100.0) 431 (99.5)  
Daily non-injection heroin usea,c     
 Yes 4 (0.8) 1 (2.2) 3 (0.7) 0.328
 No 474 (99.2) 44 (97.8) 430 (99.3)  
Daily crack usea     
 Yes 181 (37.9) 25 (55.6) 156 (36.0) 0.010
 No 297 (62.1) 20 (44.4) 277 (64.0)  
Daily crystal meth usea     
 Yes 19 (4.0) 5 (11.1) 14 (3.2) 0.025
 No 459 (96.0) 40 (88.9) 419 (96.8)  
Overdosea     
 Yes 32 (6.7) 7 (15.6) 25 (5.8) 0.012
 No 446 (93.3) 38 (84.4) 408 (94.2)  
Lent syringea,c     
 Yes 17 (3.6) 3 (6.7) 14 (3.2) 0.210
 No 460 (96.2) 42 (93.3) 418 (96.5)  
Recent incarcerationa     
 Yes 75 (15.7) 12 (26.7) 63 (14.5) 0.034
 No 402 (84.1) 33 (73.3) 369 (85.2)  
Engaged in any form of unprotected sexa,c     
 Yes 46 (9.6) 5 (11.1) 41 (9.5) 0.790
 No 429 (89.7) 40 (88.9) 389 (89.8)  
Exchanged sex for gifts, food, shelter, clothes, etc.a     
 Yes 72 (15.1) 15 (33.3) 57 (13.2) < 0.001
 No 403 (84.3) 30 (66.7) 373 (86.1)  
Attacked, assaulted, or suffered violencea     
 Yes 98 (20.5) 12 (26.7) 86 (19.9) 0.293
 No 377 (78.9) 33 (73.3) 344 (79.4)  
HCVc     
 Yes 429 (89.7) 40 (88.9) 389 (89.8) 0.797
 No 49 (10.3) 5 (11.1) 44 (10.2)  
Plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load > 50 c/mL     
 Yes 313 (65.5) 31 (68.9) 282 (65.1) 0.656
 No 162 (33.9) 14 (31.1) 148 (34.2)  
On ART (≥ 1 day)a     
 Yes 283 (59.2) 28 (62.2) 255 (58.9) 0.665
 No 195 (40.8) 17 (37.8) 178 (41.1)  
CD4+ cell count per 100 cellsa,b     
 Median, IQR 3.2 (2.0–4.8) 3.2 (1.6–5.0) 3.2 (2.0–4.8) 0.696
  1. aAll behavioural variables refer to the 6 months prior to the follow-up questionnaire
  2. bContinuous variable, p value is generated from Wilcoxon rank-sum test
  3. cp value is generated from Fisher’s exact test because of small cell count