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Table 2 Screening and factors associated with screening for unhealthy alcohol use among adult medicine patients at an urban academic Federally Qualified Health Center (n = 24,285 visits among 9119 patients)

From: Delivery of screening and brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in an urban academic Federally Qualified Health Center

Characteristic Screened, n (%)a Adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI p Adjusted difference in percent screened, % (95% CI)b
All 4212 (46.2)
Agec   0.82 (0.80–0.85) < 0.001 − 2.5 (− 2.9 to − 2.1)
 18–29 years 1022 (58.8)    
 30–49 1493 (48.7)    
 50–64 1079 (41.8)    
 ≥ 65 618 (35.6)    
Sex
 Male 1479 (49.9) Ref. < 0.001 Ref.
 Female 2733 (44.4) 0.83 (0.77–0.91)   − 2.4 (− 3.5 to − 1.3)
Race
 Black, non-Hispanic 420 (44.4) Ref.   Ref.
 Hispanic, of any race 2298 (46.6) 0.95 (0.83–1.10) 0.53 − 6.0 (− 2.5 to 1.3)
 Any other or undetermined raced 1494 (46.3) 1.00 (0.87–1.15) 0.99 0.02 (− 1.8–1.8)
Language
 English 3450 (47.1) Ref.   Ref.
 Spanish 1301 (43.8) 1.02 (0.92–1.14) 0.68 0.3 (− 1.1 to 1.7)
 French 156 (45.3) 0.94 (0.75–1.18) 0.61 − 0.75 (− 3.6 to 2.1)
Visit type
 New patient Ref.   Ref.
 Established patient 0.22 (0.20–0.24) < 0.001 − 28.3 (− 0.30.3 to − 26.4)
 Urgent care or walk-in 0.12 (0.11–0.14) < 0.001 − 34.3 (− 36.3 to − 32.3)
 Visit month 1.03 (1.02–1.04) < 0.001 0.4 (0.3–0.6)
Chronic conditions
 Hypertension
  No 3421 (51.1) Ref.   Ref.
  Yes 791 (32.7) 0.62 (0.56–0.70) < 0.001 − 5.9 (− 7.3 to − 4.6)
 Diabetes
  No 3790 (48.8) Ref.   Ref.
  Yes 422 (31.4) 0.66 (0.58–0.75) < 0.001 − 5.1 (− 6.6 to − 3.7)
 Congestive heart failure
  No 4152 (46.4) Ref.   Ref.
  Yes 60 (37.0) 1.08 (0.80–1.47) 0.60 1.1 (− 3.0 to 5.1)
 Chronic kidney disease
  No 4114 (46.7) Ref.   Ref.
  Yes 98 (32.1) 0.96 (0.75–1.22) 0.74 − 0.5 (− 3.6 to 2.5)
 HIV
  No 4135 (46.7) Ref.   Ref.
  Yes 77 (30.2) 0.36 (0.28–0.45) < 0.001 − 10.5 (− 12.3 to − 8.6)
 Hepatitis C virus
  No 4173 (46.3) Ref.   Ref.
  Yes 39 (34.5) 0.64 (0.44–0.93) 0.02 − 5.1 (− 8.9 to − 1.3)
 Depression
  No 3729 (47.1) Ref.   Ref.
  Yes 483 (40.5) 0.75 (0.66–0.84) < 0.001 − 3.6 (− 5.0 to − 2.3)
 Opioid or cocaine use disorder
  No 3983 (46.0) Ref.   Ref.
  Yes 229 (49.8) 0.76 (0.64–0.91) 0.002 − 3.3 (− 5.3 to − 1.3)
  1. aPercentages calculated at the patient level (i.e., the percent of male patients). Regression models estimated using patient-visit as the unit of analysis
  2. bRefers to the absolute difference in the probability of being screened, adjusting for all variables
  3. cAge categories used for descriptive statistics, age used as a continuous variable in regression models with a 1-unit change representing 10 years
  4. dIncludes White, Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American/Alaskan Native, or more than one race