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Table 3 Separate logistic regression models evaluating the association between substance use (unhealthy alcohol use, past-month IDU, opioid craving) and linkage to care (n = 249)

From: Role of substance use in HIV care cascade outcomes among people who inject drugs in Russia

Variable Outcome
Linkage to care and unhealthy alcohol use
n = 249
Linkage to care and IDU
n = 249
Linkage to care and opioid craving
n = 250
Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p value Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p value Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p value
AUDIT 20–40
Alcohol dependence
1.14 (0.57, 2.29) 0.72
AUDIT 8–19
Hazardous drinking
1.26 (0.65, 2.44) 0.49
IDU 0.79 (0.45, 1.38) 0.40
Opioid craving
30–70
0.78 (0.39, 1.57) 0.49
Opioid craving
71–100
0.84 (0.43, 1.64) 0.61
Gender (female vs. male) 1.45 (0.74, 2.84) 0.27 1.45 (0.74, 2.82) 0.27 1.39 (0.72, 2.71) 0.33
Age 1.00 (0.94, 1.07) 0.90 1.00 (0.93, 1.07) 0.93 1.00 (0.94, 1.07) 0.97
Stigma (continuous) 0.71 (0.44, 1.14) 0.16 0.71 (0.44, 1.14) 0.15 0.71 (0.44, 1.15) 0.16
Social support (continuous) 1.00 (0.94, 1.06) 0.95 1.00 (0.95, 1.07) 0.88 1.00 (0.94, 1.07) 0.91
Married or partnered 0.46 (0.24, 0.89) 0.02 0.45 (0.23, 0.87) 0.01 0.47 (0.24, 0.91) 0.02
Separated, divorced, or widowed 1.05 (0.49, 2.28) 0.89 1.09 (0.51, 2.32) 0.82 1.07 (0.50, 2.29) 0.85
Education 1.97 (1.02, 3.78) 0.04 1.91 (0.99, 3.68) 0.05 1.99 (1.03, 3.84) 0.04
Depressive symptoms (past-week symptoms) 0.83 (0.34, 2.00) 0.67 0.87 (0.36, 2.08) 0.74 0.90 (0.37, 2.19) 0.82
Income (high vs. low) 1.04 (0.55, 1.96) 0.91 1.09 (0.58, 2.02) 0.79 1.09 (0.58, 2.04) 0.78
Homeless 1.70 (0.30, 9.57) 0.54 1.75 (0.31, 9.93) 0.52 1.87 (0.33, 10.59) 0.48