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Table 4 Associations with HIV and HCV positivity among PWID and PWSC in Oakland, 2011–2013 (N = 2072)

From: Associations of criminal justice and substance use treatment involvement with HIV/HCV testing and the HIV treatment cascade among people who use drugs in Oakland, California

  HIV-positive HCV-positive
PR (95% CI) p value aPR (95% CI) p value PR (95% CI) p value aPR (95% CI) p value
Age (per 10 years) 1.11 (0.99–1.03) 0.208    1.65 (1.52–1.80) <0.001 1.47 (1.35–1.59) <0.001
Sexual risk group         
 Men who have sex with women 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
 Men who have sex with men 12.93 (7.20–23.20) <0.001 12.49 (6.95–22.44) <0.001 1.57 (1.15–2.14) 0.002 1.74 (1.32–2.31) <0.001
 Female non-sex workers 2.08 (1.16–3.72) 0.014 1.71 (0.98–2.99) 0.058 0.84 (0.68–1.04) 0.107 1.06 (0.89–1.25) 0.513
 Female sex worker 0.58 (0.20–1.66) 0.310 0.56 (0.19–1.60) 0.277 0.86 (0.68–1.08) 0.197 1.21 (0.98–1.48) 0.069
 Transgender 40.07 (22.07–72.76) <0.001 38.32 (20.10–73.03) <0.001 0.99 (0.20–4.96) 0.997 1.70 (1.12–2.57) 0.010
Racial/ethnic group         
 African American 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
 Caucasian 0.83 (0.26–2.60) 0.748    2.06 (1.67–2.54) <0.001 1.41 (1.16–1.72) <0.001
 Latino NC     1.88 (1.46–2.42) <0.001 1.25 (0.99–1.59) 0.060
 Mixed race/other 0.57 (0.14–2.29) 0.429    1.22 (0.88–1.70) 0.232 1.00 (0.73–1.37) 0.997
High school education 1.01 (0.62–1.65) 0.810    0.94 (0.80–1.10) 0.452   
Steady partnership 1.20 (0.75–1.91) 0.448    0.81 (0.69–0.96) 0.012   
Have children 0.72 (0.42–1.22) 0.217    1.01 (0.83–1.24) 0.896   
Ever injected drugs 1.19 (0.74–1.90) 0.470    8.98 (6.63–12.16) <0.001 7.06 (5.17–9.64) <0.001
Homeless 1.10 (0.69–1.76) 0.686    1.21 (1.03–1.42) 0.017 1.30 (1.14–1.48) <0.001
Trouble meeting needs 1.71 (0.94–3.12) 0.077 1.61 (0.91–2.85) 0.101 1.27 (1.05–1.54) 0.012   
Income ≥ $900 0.69 (0.37–1.27) 0.230    1.16 (0.98–1.38) 0.088   
Incarcerated 0.87 (0.38–1.99) 0.746    2.45 (1.37–4.39) 0.002   
Community supervision 1.34 (0.62–2.90) 0.464    1.41 (1.05–1.88) 0.022   
Substance use treatment 1.06 (0.64–1.74) 0.826    1.91 (1.53–2.39) <0.001 1.20 (0.99–1.45) 0.060
  1. NC: model did not converge for this category