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Table 1 Characteristics of people who inject drugs or smoke crack cocaine, 2011–2013 (N = 2072)

From: Associations of criminal justice and substance use treatment involvement with HIV/HCV testing and the HIV treatment cascade among people who use drugs in Oakland, California

  HIV-negative (n = 2004) HIV-positive (n = 68) Total (n = 2072)
Age    
 18–29 139 (7) 0 (0) 139 (7)
 30–39 274 (14) 7 (10) 281 (13)
 40–49 644 (32) 28 (41) 672 (32)
 50–59 726 (36) 27 (40) 753 (36)
 ≥60 222 (11) 6 (9) 228 (11)
Male 1177 (59) 39 (57) 1216 (59)
 Men who have sex with men 46 (2) 16 (23) 62 (3)
 Men who have sex with women 1129 (56) 23 (34) 1152 (56)
Female 827 (41) 25 (37) 852 (41)
 Non-sex worker 485 (24) 21 (31) 506 (24)
 Sex worker 342 (17) 4 (6) 346 (17)
Transgender 1 (<1) 4 (6) 5 (<1)
Racial/ethnic group    
 African American 1721 (86) 63 (93) 1784 (86)
 Caucasian 100 (5) 3 (4) 103 (5)
 Latino 76 (4) 0 (0) 76 (4)
 Black Latino 10 (<1) 0 (0) 10 (<1)
 Asian/Pacific Islander 8 (<1) 0 (0) 8 (<1)
 Native American 13 (<1) 0 (0) 13 (<1)
 Mixed 47 (2) 2 (3) 49 (2)
 Other 30 (1) 0 (0) 30 (1)
High school education 1260 (63) 43 (63) 1303 (63)
Steady partnership 967 (48) 36 (53) 1003 (48)
Have children 1597 (80) 50 (73) 1647 (79)
Drug use history    
 Injected drugs (only) 42 (2) 1 (<1) 43 (2)
  Injected opioids (only) 31 (1) 0 (0) 31 (1)
  Injected stimulants (only) 4 (<1) 1 (<1) 5 (<1)
  Injected opioids and stimulants 7 (<1) 0 (0) 7 (<1)
 Smoked crack/cocaine (only) 1476 (74) 50 (73) 1526 (74)
 Injected drugs and smoked crack/cocaine 486 (24) 17 (<1) 510 (25)
  Injected opioids and smoked crack/cocaine 245 (12) 5 (<1) 254 (12)
  Injected stimulants and smoked crack/cocaine 26 (1) 6 (<1) 33 (2)
  Injected opioids and stimulants and smoked crack/cocaine 215 (11) 6 (<1) 223 (11)
Homeless 1011 (50) 36 (53) 1047 (50)
Trouble meeting needs 1420 (71) 55 (81) 1475 (71)
Income <$900 1513 (76) 55 (82) 1568 (76)
Risky injection or sexual behavior 785 (40) 19 (28) 804 (39)
Incarcerated 1844 (92) 62 (91) 1906 (92)
Community supervision 1613 (86) 57 (89) 1670 (86)
Substance use treatment 1330 (67) 46 (68) 1376 (66)