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Table 3 Factors associated with ART use among women who knew they were living with HIV and were eligible for ART

From: Seek, test, treat: substance-using women in the HIV treatment cascade in South Africa

Variable Not on ART Currently on ART Bivariate logistic regression Multivariable logistic regression
Sociodemographic characteristic n = 68 n = 88 OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age in years, mean (SD) 30.7 (7.0) 35.9 (6.5) 1.13 (1.07, 1.19)*** 1.08 (1.02, 1.15)**
% education ≥10th grade 60.3 53.4 0.92 (0.48, 1.78)  
% unemployed 86.0 86.7 1.07 (0.38, 2.96)  
% married or living as married 52.9 60.2 1.35 (0.71, 2.55)  
% family member with HIV/AIDS 59.7 79.5 2.62 (1.29, 5.35)** 2.09 (0.90, 4.82)
% ever incarcerated (lifetime) 51.5 28.4 0.37 (0.19, 0.73)**  
% ever in substance abuse treatment (lifetime) 16.2 1.1 0.06 (0.01, 0.47)**  
Urine drug screen and breathalyzer results
% marijuana (THC) positive 50.0 19.3 0.24 (0.12, 0.49)***  
% opiate positive 30.9 4.5 0.11 (0.03, 0.33)***  
% cocaine positive 25.0 4.5 0.14 (0.05, 0.45)**  
% opiate or cocaine positive 35.3 6.8 0.13 (0.05, 0.35)*** 0.27 (0.09, 0.80)*
% alcohol (breathalyzer) positive 14.7 15.9 1.10 (0.45, 2.65)  
Sex risk behaviors
% used a condom at last sex 49.2 39.8 0.68 (0.36, 1.30)  
# times unprotected sex past 30 days, mean (SD) 10.3 (18.7) 7.5 (9.4) 0.99 (0.96, 1.01)  
% engaged in sex work past 6 months 58.8 38.6 0.44 (0.23, 0.84)*  
Victimization
% physically assaulted past year 13.2 8.0 0.57 (0.20, 1.61)  
% sexually assaulted past year 11.8 4.5 0.36 (0.10, 1.24)  
SF-36 mental health and vitality scales
Mental health scale score, mean (SD)a 56.1 (13.5) 60.6 (14.0) 1.02 (1.00, 1.05)* 1.02 (1.00, 1.04)
Vitality scale score, mean (SD)b 42.2 (18.8) 33.4 (14.4) 0.97 (0.95, 0.99)*  
Contextual factors
% recruited from inner cityb 54.4 26.1 0.30 (0.15, 0.58)***  
Century month recruitedc, mean (SD) 147.0 (8.8) 153.6 (8.3) 1.09 (1.05, 1.13)*** 1.06 (1.01, 1.11)*
% living in informal settlementd 32.4 38.6 1.32 (0.68, 2.56)  
  1. p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001
  2. aSF-36 Mental Health and Vitality scales
  3. Transformed scale = [(Actual raw score − lowest possible raw score)/(possible raw score range)] × 100
  4. bThe reference group is recruited from outside the inner city
  5. cCentury month (CM). January 2001 = 1. The project recruited from May 2012 (CM = 136) to September 2014 (CM = 164). South Africa was in the midst of scaling up HIV testing and treatment during this period
  6. dThe reference group is not living in an informal settlement