Skip to main content

Table 2 Correlates of newly diagnosed HIV among HIV-positive women in Pretoria, South Africa

From: Seek, test, treat: substance-using women in the HIV treatment cascade in South Africa

Variable Previously diagnosed Newly diagnosed Bivariate logistic regression Multivariable logistic regression
Sociodemographic characteristic n = 228 n = 126 OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age in years, mean (SD) 32.7 (6.9) 29.1 (7.0) 0.92 (0.89, 0.95)*** 0.91 (0.88, 0.95)***
% education ≥10th grade 57.5 54.8 1.11 (0.71, 1.75)  
% unemployed 89.1 85.3 0.71 (0.36, 1.41)  
% married or living as married 54.4 49.2 0.81 (0.53, 1.26)  
% ever had a family member with HIV/AIDS 66.1 62.7 0.86 (0.55, 1.36)  
% ever incarcerated (lifetime) 40.8 37.3 0.86 (0.55, 1.35)  
% ever in substance abuse treatment (lifetime) 7.9 1.6 0.19 (0.04, 0.82)* 0.15 (0.03, 0.69)*
Urine drug screen and breathalyzer results
% marijuana (THC) positive 33.3 27.8 0.77 (0.48, 1.24)  
% opiate positive 17.1 16.7 0.97 (0.54, 1.73)  
% cocaine positive 14.0 11.9 0.83 (0.43, 1.6)  
% opiate or cocaine positive 20.2 20.6 1.03 (0.60, 1.76)  
% alcohol (breathalyzer) positive 16.3 13.5 0.80 (0.43, 1.49)  
Sex risk behaviors
% used a condom at last sex 48.9 33.3 0.52 (0.33, 0.82)** 0.58 (0.34, 0.98)**
# times unprotected sex past 30 days, mean (SD) 8.2 (12.9) 10.2 (16.3) 1.01 (0.99, 1.02)  
% engaged in sex work past 6 months 50.0 36.5 0.58 (0.37, 0.90)* 0.83 (0.49, 1.40)
Victimization
% physically assaulted past year 10.5 18.3 1.90 (1.02, 3.52)* 1.97 (1.01, 3.84)*
% sexually assaulted past year 6.6 8.7 1.36 (0.60, 3.05)  
SF-36 mental health and vitality scales
Mental health scale score, mean (SD)a 58.4 (14.4) 59.0 (15.8) 1.00 (0.99, 1.02)  
Vitality scale score, mean (SD)b 36.6 (16.9) 33.9 (17.7) 0.99 (0.98, 1.00)  
Contextual factors
% recruited from inner cityb 40.4 40.5 1.01 (0.65, 1.57)  
Century month recruitedc, mean (SD) 150.3 (8.9) 150.3 (8.4) 1.00 (0.97, 1.02)  
% living in informal settlementd 36.4 42.1 1.27 (0.81, 1.98)  
  1. p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001
  2. aSF-36 Mental Health and Vitality scales
  3. Transformed scale = [(Actual raw score − lowest possible raw score)/(possible raw score range)] × 100
  4. bThe reference group is recruited from outside the inner city
  5. cCentury month (CM). January 2001 = 1. The project recruited from May 2012 (CM = 136) to September 2014 (CM = 164). South Africa was in the midst of scaling up HIV testing and treatment during this period
  6. dThe reference group is not living in an informal settlement