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Table 1 Correlates of HIV among high-risk women in Pretoria, South Africa

From: Seek, test, treat: substance-using women in the HIV treatment cascade in South Africa

Variable HIV status Bivariate logistic regression Multivariable logistic regression
Negative Positive
Sociodemographic characteristic (n = 287) (n = 354) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age in years, mean (SD) 29.0 (8.5) 31.5 (7.0) 1.04 (1.02, 1.07)*** 1.03 (1.01, 1.05)**
% education ≥10th grade 70.4 56.5 0.55 (0.39, 0.76)*** 0.69 (0.48, 0.98)*
% unemployed 82.7 87.7 1.49 (0.93, 2.38)  
% married or living as married 46.7 52.5 1.26 (0.93, 1.73)  
% ever had a family member with HIV/AIDS 59.1 64.9 1.28 (0.93, 1.76)  
% ever incarcerated (lifetime) 29.7 39.5 1.55 (1.11, 2.15)** 1.10 (0.76, 1.59)
% ever in substance abuse treatment (lifetime) 7.0 5.6 0.80 (0.42, 1.52)  
Urine drug screen and breathalyzer results
% marijuana (THC) positive 31.4 31.4 1.0 (0.71, 1.40)  
% opiate positive 19.2 16.9 0.86 (0.57, 1.29)  
% cocaine positive 15.7 13.3 0.82 (0.53, 1.28)  
% opiate or cocaine positive 21.3 20.3 0.95 (0.64, 1.39)  
% alcohol (breathalyzer) positive 12.9 15.3 1.22 (0.77, 1.91)  
Mean breathalyzer score for women with a positive alcohol test (SD) 0.08 (0.11) 0.08 (0.11) 1.69 (0.03, 82.96)  
Self-report alcohol and drug use past 30 days
% alcohol 84.7 88.7 1.42 (0.90, 2.25)  
% marijuana 28.6 30.5 1.01 (0.78, 1.55)  
% cocaine (rock) 13.2 10.5 0.76 (0.47, 1.24)  
% heroin and marijuana mixed (Nyaope) 18.8 15.3 0.78 (0.51, 1.17)  
Self-report Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Tests (AUDIT) score ≥20 26.5 34.2 1.44 (1.02, 2.03)* 1.43 (0.99, 2.07)
Sex risk behaviors
% used a condom at last sex 28.5 43.3 1.92 (1.37, 2.68)*** 1.45 (0.97, 2.16)
# times unprotected sex past 30 days, mean (SD) 8.6 (12.9) 8.9 (14.2) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)  
Sex work past 6 months 26.8 45.2 2.25 (1.61, 3.14)*** 1.47 (0.98, 2.22)
Victimization
% physically assaulted past year 9.1 13.3 1.54 (0.93, 2.55)  
% sexually assaulted past year 5.2 7.3 1.44 (0.75, 2.77)  
SF-36 mental health and vitality scales
Mental health scale score, mean (SD)a 65.1 (19.2) 64.3 (19) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)  
Vitality scale score, mean (SD)a 34.2 (18.3) 35.7 (17.2) 1.00 (1.00, 1.01)  
Contextual factors
% recruited from inner cityb 24.4 40.4 2.1 (1.49, 2.96)*** 1.90 (1.30, 2.78)**
Century month recruitedc, mean (SD) 150.7 (8.5) 150.3 (8.7) 0.99 (0.98, 1.01)  
% living in informal settlementd 30.3 38.4 1.43 (1.03, 2.00)* 1.49 (1.04, 2.14)*
  1. p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001
  2. aSF-36 Mental Health and Vitality scales
  3. Transformed scale = [(Actual raw score − lowest possible raw score)/(possible raw score range)] × 100
  4. bThe reference group is recruited from outside the inner city
  5. cCentury month (CM). January 2001 = 1. The project recruited from May 2012 (CM = 136) to September 2014 (CM = 164). South Africa was in the midst of scaling up HIV testing and treatment during this period
  6. dThe reference group is not living in an informal settlement