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Table 4 Patient-, physician- and system-level factors associated with delivery of BI/RT by treatment arm

From: Physician versus non-physician delivery of alcohol screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment in adult primary care: the ADVISe cluster randomized controlled implementation trial

  PCP Arm NPP & MA Arm
Coefficient value Std. err. OR 95% CI p value Coefficient value Std. err. OR 95% CI p value
Patient level
 Age
  18–24 vs. ≥60 0.2127 0.2119 1.24 (0.82, 1.87) 0.315 0.3589 0.2019 1.43 (0.96, 2.13) 0.075
  25–44 vs. ≥60 −0.1290 0.1755 0.88 (0.62, 1.24) 0.462 0.2557 0.1632 1.29 (0.94, 1.78) 0.117
  45–59 vs. ≥60 −0.1571 0.1730 0.85 (0.61, 1.20) 0.364 0.5254 0.1615 1.69 (1.23, 2.32) 0.001
 Gender
  Female vs. Male −0.5081 0.1166 0.60 (0.48, 0.76) 0.000 −0.4701 0.1067 0.62 (0.51, 0.77) 0.000
 Comorbid psychiatric conditions
  Yes vs. no 0.1489 0.1403 1.16 (0.88, 1.53) 0.289 0.2391 0.1121 1.27 (1.02, 1.58) 0.033
 Chronic diseases
  Yes vs. no −0.0359 0.1165 0.96 (0.77, 1.21) 0.758 0.2444 0.0995 1.28 (1.05, 1.58) 0.014
Physician level
 Age
  (per 1 year increase) −0.0608 0.0161 0.94 (0.91, 0.97) 0.000      
 Gender
  Female vs. male 0.2221 0.1932 1.25 (0.86, 1.82) 0.250      
 Race/ethnicity
  Non-white vs. white −0.5904 0.1599 0.55 (0.41, 0.76) 0.000      
 Years of services at the health plan
  (per 1 year increase) 0.0614 0.0152 1.06 (1.03, 1.10) 0.000      
 Specialty
  Non-internal medicine vs. internal medicine −0.2045 0.1932 0.82 (0.56, 1.19) 0.290      
System level
 Colocation of AOD and primary care departments
  Yes vs. no −0.1525 0.5258 0.86 (0.31, 2.41) 0.772 0.6106 0.4493 1.84 (0.76, 4.44) 0.174
 MA/PCP ratio at the clinic −3.1177 0.3265 0.04 (0.02, 0.08) 0.000 −0.4583 0.3325 0.63 (0.33, 1.21) 0.168
 Ave. visit time 0.3111 0.0546 1.36 (1.23, 1.52) 0.000 0.0106 0.0529 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) 0.841
 Number of PCPs trained at the clinic −0.1695 0.0360 0.84 (0.79, 0.91) 0.000      
  1. A three-level multivariate logistic model adjusting for clustering effects within physician and clinic was run for each of the two intervention arms
  2. BI/RT brief intervention or referral to treatment, PCP primary care physicians, NPP non-physician providers, MA medical assistants, AOD alcohol and other drug