Skip to main content

Table 2 Phases of alcohol problem prevention research (from Holder et al., 1999[16])

From: The efficacy-effectiveness distinction in trials of alcohol brief intervention

I. Foundational research: Basic studies to define and determine the prevalence of specific alcohol-involved problems, establish the causal factors that yield specific problems or increase the risk of a problem, and provide foundations for the development of effective preventive interventions.
II. Developmental studies: Preliminary studies to develop and test new interventions or to assess the effectiveness of an existing intervention
III. Efficacy studies: Rigorous studies (of maximised internal validity) of the intervention under optimal conditions with maximal implementation (availability or enforcement) and acceptance (participation or compliance)
IV. Effectiveness studies: Studies of real-world effectiveness of preventive interventions with purposeful or natural variations.
V. Diffusion studies: Studies of the effects of different levels or types of implementation or acceptance on effectiveness